Freckles are small spots of dark and light brown colour that appears on the skin. Freckles are caused due to increased production of melanin in our body. They are caused due to disruption in the cells called melanocytes. The size of the spots is typically of the head of a nail. They are harmless but take time to heal. Freckles generally multiply, if not treated on time. They usually do not pose any threat of some severe disease.
Apart from the production of melanin in the body, another severe cause of freckles is exposure to the sun. Sunlight contains UV radiation which is harmful for our skin. Excess exposure to UV radiation creates sunburns or freckles on the body. People with light-colored skin are more prone to freckles because their body produces more pheomelanin. Pheomelanin is the type of melanin that does not protect our body from harmful UV radiation. The presence of this melanin makes the body incapable of fighting with UV radiations and freckles appear. However, on the other hand, dark skin people’s body, emit more eumelanin. Eumelanin protects the body from UV radiations and prevents freckles to appear.
Freckles are also common among young children. They may develop it an early age. Usually the pattern and color of freckles are uniform in nature but their color becomes dark if they are exposed to direct sunlight. They are sometimes confused with moles, but moles are different. Moles are small and bumpy whereas freckles are flat and are not bumpy. This identification distinguishes them from each other.
Freckles can be cured but it takes time. Sometimes it is inherited from the ancestors so it becomes perpetual in the family. Some allopathic treatments are available yet they are very costly and make the skin prone to some severe diseases in the future. The use of sunscreen, aloe vera and moisturizers help and prevent the skin from developing freckles. Applying lemon juice, honey, buttermilk, turmeric, and sour cream are some home remedies that help in lightening the color of spots. The spots darken during the summer season and brighten up during winters. If freckles are diagnosed then direct contact with sunlight should be avoided and the application of sunscreens become a mandatory precaution.