Pigmentation causes dark, discolored brownish spots and patches on the skin. But are these spots are just externally visible effects? No, these spots are just not only an external effect. Since our health is reflected on the skin, here also there is some internal reason behind whatever is noticeable on the outer skin. Here the reason behind pigmentation is Melanin.
Melanin is an extensive term used for all natural pigments found inside an organism. It is the melanin which is responsible behind the color of our skin, eyes and hair. It makes our skin, eyes and hair darker. Melanin is produced by some special cells called melanocytes. The number of these cells is equal in every organism but the amount of melanin produced may vary. If the cells produced more melanin, your skin color will be darker and vice versa. Generally this amount depends upon the genes. Thus your skin color more or less is similar to that of your parents. Studies have also found that melanin helps in blocking UV rays but these are usually not sufficient. Melanin has other importance also as increased melanin also provide protection against skin cancer which means that darker people are less prone to be the victim of skin cancer as compared to lighter ones.
Now the general amount of melanin produced depends upon our genes and thus the basic skin color. So, it is a natural phenomenon that any certain increase and decrease in the amount of melanin produced by respective cells will result in the comparative change in the shade of our skin. This change observed in the amount of melanin can be due to the various reasons leading to hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Hyperpigmentation in which we witness dark and darker is certainly because our cells have produced way too much amount of melanin.
Pregnancy, Addison’s disease, and sun exposure are some of the reasons which may increase the production of melanin. Thus leading to dark patches or spots on the skin. Inflammation is another major reason which excessively increases the amount of melanin and leads to reddish or brownish spots on the particular area where the inflammation was experienced due to any injury or acne. Similarly, Hypopigmentation which is a condition in which we witness the patches of lighter shade is, therefore, the result of decreased melanin production in the cells. Post effect of Injuries like blisters or burns and certain diseases can be the reason for discolored lighter patches.
So whatever patch or spots appearing on the skin is the result of chemical changes undergoing inside the cells. Skin pigmentation in the face or any other body part is just the reflection or changes that occur in our skin due to the varied amount of melanin only. The amount of melanin can be different in different individuals but an increase or decrease in its amount can be the result of some imbalances occurring in that individual body. So we should take care of that by not letting that amount vary by preventing the causes which are under our control like using creams and clothes for providing protection against suntan and sunburn and keeping ourselves hydrated enough to prevent anything undesirable.